根据材料并结合所学知识回答问题。(15分)

材料  全面抗战爆发后,毛泽东代表中国共产党提出依据新三民主义的建国主张。他指出:共产党决不抛弃其社会主义与共产主义理想,他们将经过资产阶级民主革命阶段达到社会主义与共产主义阶段。共产党有自己的党纲与政纲,其党纲是社会主义与共产主义,这是与三民主义有区别的。但是,“共产主义是在革命发展的将来阶段实行的,共产主义者在现在阶段并不梦想实行共产主义,而是要实行历史规定的民族革命主义和民主革命主义”。因此,在现阶段共产主义与三民主义“是基本上没有冲突的”,“现在的任务,是在全国范围内恢复孙中山先生的三民主义的革命精神,据以定出一定的政纲和政策,并真正而不二心地、切实而不敷衍地、迅速而不推延地实行起来”。他呼吁国民党“放弃个人和小集团的私见,改变过去的老一套,立即实行符合于三民主义的革命纲领,彻底地与民更始”。

    ——据《毛泽东选集》

1)根据材料并结合所学知识,简要说明毛泽东提出依据新三民主义建国主张的历史背景。(7分)

2)根据材料并结合所学知识,评析毛泽东依据新三民主义提出的建国主张。(8分)

 

根据材料并 结合所学知 识回答问题。(15分)

材料  宋太祖赵匡胤本为后周殿前都点检,960年,奉命御辽。到达陈桥驿时,发生兵变,赵匡胤黄袍加身,取代后周建立宋王朝,史称“陈桥兵变”。

对“陈桥兵变”,宋初众说纷纭,《太祖实录》亦语焉不详。宋太宗赵匡义命重修《太祖实录》,说:“史官之职,固在善恶必书,无所隐晦”,“太祖之事周朝也,尽力王室,中外所知。至于大宝(皇位),非有意也”。太宗特地指出,时值契丹入侵,太祖率兵出击,一日醉卧帐中,众将士云集,强拥太祖为皇帝,此乃时势所趋,并非人力所为。

今人研究认为,赵匡胤制造辽(契丹)与北汉联兵南下的假情报,宰相范质等人不明真相,匆忙派遣赵匡胤率诸军北上抵御。大军行至陈桥驿,赵匡胤弟赵匡义等受意发动兵变,将士们把黄袍加在赵匡胤身上,拥立他为天子。

    ——摘编自张岂之主编《中国历史》等

1)根据材料,概括说明宋太宗对“陈桥兵变”的解释与今人研究的结果有何不同。(6分)

2)根据材料并结合所学知识,简析宋太宗重修《太祖实录》关于“陈桥兵变”记载的原因。(9分)

 

1964年,中法建立外交关系。1966年,法国总统戴高乐访问苏联,两国发表了联合声明,强调由欧洲人来考虑和解决欧洲事务,还达成了空间技术合作协定,进一步扩大了合作领域。这表明

A.西方资本主义阵营出现分化         B.欧洲一体化向纵深发展

C.世界多极化趋势进一步加强         D.法国改变战略目标与价值取向

 

1960年,石油生产国伊拉克、沙特阿拉伯、伊朗等国家建立石油输出国组织,反映了发展中国家反对旧的世界经济秩序的要求。构成这段文字的是

A.历史观点和历史解释               B.历史观点和历史结论

C.历史结论历史解释               D.历史叙述和历史解释

 

俄国苏维埃政权建立后至1940年间,一段时间内经济进入停滞状态,工业和生活用品的生产极度萎缩,可耕地面积缩减,粮食不断减产,牲畜大幅度减少。这一时期是 

A.二月革命时期                     B.国内战争时期

C.农业集体化时期                   D.德军入侵时期

 

一位在狱中受过军事队列训练的德国老鞋匠,在1906年刑满释放后的某日,打扮成一名少尉,带领在街头偶然遇到的一小队士兵,来到某镇财务所,说:“我是皇帝派来的,赶快把钱给我。”财务官员立即把钱交出,老鞋匠敬了一个标准军礼,拿着钱带着士兵扬长而去。这一事件反映出当时德国

A.社会秩序陷入混乱                 B.专制体制臻于极盛

C.政府官员纪律松弛                 D.军国主义弥漫社会

 

1689年,英国议会决定拥戴威廉和玛丽为英国国王和女王,同时选派代表将王冠连同《权利宣言》(《权利法案》的初稿)一起呈献给二人,并当面宣读,威廉和玛丽心照不宣地全部接受。这一事件所体现的政治理念是

A.天赋人权      B.民主共和       C.君主立宪       D.权力制衡

 

达芬奇在绘画时常思考,一个人哭时看起来是什么样;笑的时候,身体内在的情形——肌肉、骨头和筋——又是什么样子。于是,他对人的遗体进行解剖和研究。这表明,达芬奇

A.旨在进行实验科学研究             B.刻意表现奔放情感

C.探求对人体的理性认识             D.否定天主教神学理论

 

公元前427年,希腊小城邦密提林背叛了雅典,投靠斯巴达。雅典民情激愤,公民大会迅速作出决议,将密提林成年男子全部处死,妇女儿童罚作奴隶。第二天,民众情绪趋于平静,公民大会撤销了原决议。据此可知,在古代

A.希腊小邦缺乏政治自主权           B.公民决定雅典城邦重大决策

C.大邦争霸阻碍了希腊统一           D.雅典公民大会有时违背民意

 

1992年,我国公有制经济以外的其他经济成分增长较快,国家直接管理的农业、工业、外贸等出口产品计划指标减少1/3,其中指令性计划指标减少近一半。这表明我国

A.市场在国民经济中的地位增强       B.总体上已经达到小康水平

C.确立了社会主义市场经济体制       D.实现与世界经济的全面接轨

 

2是创作于1950年的宣传画《拖拉机》,该作品反映出

A.农村开始走上人民公社化道路       B.农业机械化已在农村得到普及

C.农业生产方式将发生巨大变化       D.农村掀起社会主义改造的高潮

 

1927年,一位国民党领导人说:“现在可有一种危险,是国民党差不多专做上层的工作,中央党部、国民政府都是国民党的同志多。至于下层的民众运动,国民党员参加的少,共产党员参加的多,因此形成一种畸形的发展。”由此可知,当时

A.工农运动决定战争走向             B.国民革命运动已经失败   

C.国共合作存在分裂隐患             D.国民党开始重视工农运动

 

1910年,清政府设立资政院“以立议院基础”。资政院议员部分由皇帝钦定,部分由选举产生。其职责包括议决国家军政大师、审议财政预算和修订法律等,议决事项须“具奏,恭候圣裁”。此次改革

A.实践了英国式君主立宪制           B.加强了皇帝个人的独裁统治

C.带有浓厚的专制主义色彩           D.确立了三权分立的政治体制

 

清末举行的一次科举特科考试,论题为“《大戴礼》(即汉代戴德所编辑整理的《礼记》)‘保,保其身体;傅,傅其德义;师,导之教训’与近世各国学校体育、德育、智育同义论”,要求论证中国传统教育与西方教育同义。这反映了

A.近代教育体制已经确立             B.中体西用治国理念的推行

C.朝廷借科举倡导回归国学           D.西方教育思想成为主流

 

1894年,在中国的25个通商口岸有洋行552家,其中近三分之二属于一个国家。这个国家是

A.日本          B.美国           C.德国           D.英国

 

在中国历史上,人们习惯以“夷”称呼西方国家。然而,徐继畬《瀛寰志略》(1848年)对西方各国的称谓是“外国”“英吉利”“葡萄牙”等,很少称“夷”。同治初年,清廷下旨不再以“夷”称呼西方各国。这反映了

A.中国半殖民地社会形成             B.天朝观念已被摒弃

C.清朝政府接受国际惯例             D.洋务运动成为共识

 

明清时期,在江南、华南的一些地区,经济作物的种植面积扩大,传统的粮食生产比重降低。这一现象表明,明清时期上述地区

A.农业生产出现衰退                 B.人口变动导致粮食需求减少

C.普通农户收益锐减                 D.农产品商品化趋势明显

 

1是我国出土的古代杂剧砖雕图案。据此可知,元杂剧

A.已经有明确的角色分工             B.演变为后来的京剧

C.以歌舞为主要艺术形式             D.基本取材于宫廷生活

 

“唐初,兵之戍边者,大曰军,小曰守捉,曰城,曰镇”,镇将只掌防戍守御。宋代,诸镇“置于管下火烟繁盛处,设监官,管火禁或兼酒税之事”。镇的功能变化反映了

A.商品经济的发展                   B.坊市制度被逐渐打破

C.地方行政机构权力扩大             D.边患问题得到解决

 

东汉实行察举制,“郡察孝廉,州举茂才”,州、郡都必须定期向朝廷举荐一定数量的人才,而判断孝廉、茂才的标准包括对儒家经典的熟悉程度和道德声望的高低等。这客观上

A.推动了独尊儒学局面的出现         B.促使社会阶层趋于固化

C.打破了世家大族对政权的垄断       D.动摇了郡县制的基础

 

“物格而后知至,知至而后意诚,意诚而后心正,心正而后身修,身修而后家齐,家齐而后国治,国治而后天下平。”下列各项中,最接近这一说法的是 

A.其身正,不令而行;其不正,虽令不从

B.视天下犹一家,中国犹一人  

C.勿以恶小而为之,勿以善小而不为

D.居庙堂之高,则忧其民;处江湖之远,则忧其君

 

考古工作者在河南辉县琉璃阁发掘了一座春秋时期的诸侯墓,出土了只有周天子才能使用的九鼎。这反映了

A.宗法制度的瓦解                   B.分封制度的崩溃

C.等级制度的颠覆                   D.礼乐制度的破坏

 

Students in China spend a lot of time learning English. But most of them cannot use it to communicate. Some experts think the reason lies in the testing system, because the current English testing system in China puts too much pressure on students to get high marks and pay no attention to the development of their overall(全面的) language abilities. Considering this, recently many experts are calling for reforms(改革) of the English language testing system to make it more effectively to develop actual language abilities. They say changes are necessary for the development of the national English education system.

写作要求:

1.30个词左右概括上述话题的主要内容;

2.用约100个词就这一话题发表自己的看法,并包括如下要点:

(1)你是否赞成英语考试的改革。

(2)你赞同或反对的理由(至少两条)。

(3)“How to develop overall language abilities”谈谈你的看法。

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

 

 

1.采取任何你认为最好的措施。(whatever)

2.昨晚汤姆到家的时候,母亲已经做好了晚饭。(by+时间状语)

3.据说这本书已被翻译成六种语言。(主语+be said to do)

4.我受够了你的蠢主意。

5.晚会结果开得很成功。

 

(1)When Polly left her home that morning, she was told that the fog was too thick for the bus to go 1. far. She had to take the Underground to Green Park. On the trains as Polly 2. the passengers, she felt being watched by a tall man in a dark cover coat. On the way towards Park Street, she heard the sound of foot steps 3. and a rough hand brushed her check and she was frightened. Later, an old man 4. out his hand and led her through the fog. She was very 5. to the old man.

(2) Finally, we arrived in Loulan after several days of travelling. This 6. city was busy and 7. about 2,000 years ago. It was a 8. point on the famous silk Road between the East and the West. It’s 9. to have been gradually 10. over by sandstorms from AD 200 to AD 400. I am so excited to be here!

 

The Chinese language differs from Western languages in that, instead of an alphabet, it uses characters which stand for ideas, objects or deeds. Chinese words are formed by putting together different characters. In many cases, a single character can also make up a word. The history of the Chinese language can be examined by looking at how these characters developed.

Chinese writing began thousands of years ago. According to an ancient story, a man named Cang Jie invented Chinese writing. One winter day while he was hunting, he saw the tracks of animals in the snow and observed that the appearance of each one was different. Then he had the idea that he could use different shapes to represent different objects. The first Chinese characters were drawings of physical objects. Some characters have been simplified and others have been made more difficult over time. However, as a whole the characters have developed from drawings into standard forms.

Not all characters were developed from drawings of objects. Sometimes to express ideas, some characters were made by combining two or more characters together. Other characters were developed for directions and numbers. It is easy to distinguish their meanings by looking at them.

Though these kinds of characters indicate meanings, one of their shortcomings is that they do not show how they should be pronounced. Therefore, a method was developed to have one part of a character indicate the meaning and the other suggest the pronunciation. Many Chinese characters used today were made this way.

In the 1950s the Chinese government introduced simplified Chinese characters and now they have widespread use in China’s mainland.

Brief 1.

The Chinese language is 2. from western language because it uses characters to 3. ideas, objects or deeds.

The origins of Chinese characters

An idea 4.to Cangjie after he observed the tracks of animals 5. appearance differed from each other in the snow.

The 6. of Chinese characters

·As a whole, the characters developed from drawing into standard forms.

·Some characters were made by comining two or more characters together, whose meanings are easy to 7..

·Many Chinese characters consists of two parts, one 8. the meaning and the other suggesting the pronunciation.

·Now, Chinese characters have become much 9. and been used in china’s mainland 10..

 

 

 

In 1929, a peasant in Sichuan Province uncovered jade (玉器) and stone artifacts(手工艺品) while repairing a ditch(沟渠) located about 24 miles from Chengdu. But their significance wasn’t understood until 1986, when archaeologists unearthed two pits(大坑) of Bronze Age treasures. The discovery suggests an impressive technicality(手工技艺), said Peter Keller, a geologist and president of the Bowers Museum in California, which is currently hosting an exhibit of some of these treasures.

The treasures came from a lost civilization, now known as the Sanxingdui, a city on the banks of the Minjiang River.

“It’s a big mystery,” said Keller, who is not involved in the current study.

“Archaeologists now believe that the culture disappeared sometime between 3,000 and 2,800 years ago,” Niannian fan, a river science researcher at Tsinghua University in Chengdu, China, said.

“The current explanations for why it disappeared are war and flood, but both are not very convincing,” Fan told Live Science.

But about 14 years ago, archaeologists found the remains of another ancient city called Jinsha near Chengdu. The Jinsha site, though it contained none of the bronzes of Sanxingdui, did have a gold crown covered with fish, arrows and birds similar to golden objects found at Sanxingdui. That has led some scholars to believe that the people from Sanxingdui may have relocated to Jinsha.

Fan wondered whether an earthquake may have caused landslides that dammed the river high up in the mountains and rerouted it to Jinsha. That catastrophe may have reduced Sanxingdui’s water supply, spurring its people to move.

And some historical records support their assumptions. In 1099 B.C., ancient writers recorded an earthquake in the capital of the Zhou Dynasty, in Shanxi Province, Fan said. Though that spot is roughly 250 miles from the historic site of Sanxingdui, the latter culture didn’t have writing at the time. So it’s possible the earthquake epicenter(震中) was actually close to Sanxingdui-but it just wasn’t recorded there.

Around the same time, geological sediment(沉积物) suggest massive flooding occurred, and the later-han Dynasty document The Chronicles of the Kings of Shu records ancient floods pouring from a mountain in a spot that suggests the flow being rerouted, Fan said.

Together, the findings hint that major earthquake triggered a landslide that dammed the river, rerouting its flow and reducing water flow to Sanxingdui, Fan said.

1.In the first paragraph, the author wants to _____.

A. introduce the topic of a lost civilization

B. tel us how beautiful the jade and stone artifacts look

C. remind us to pay attention to the earthquake

D. inform us we can easily find treasures in a ditch

2.According to the passage, the following statements are true EXCEPT that ______.

A. Bowers Museum is exhibiting some of Bronze Age treasures

B. Peter Keller is the lead researcher on the study of Sanxingdui

C. some scholars think that the people from Sanxingdui may have moved to Jinsha

D. some findings support the idea that an earthquake caused a landslide, which dammed the river, rerouting its flow and reducing water flow to Sanxingdui

3.Which of the following is the most probable explanation of mystery of the disappearance of Sanxingdui’s civilization?

A. War.    B. Flood.

C. Earthquake.    D. Hurricane.

4.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word “spurring” in the seventh paragraph?

A. Forcing.    B. Allowing.

C. Supporting.    D. Favoring.

5.What type of writing is this passage?

A. Science fiction.    B. An official document.

C. A newspaper report.    D. A research report.

 

I was born at Blunderstone, in Suffolk, in the east of England, and was given my poor father’s name, David Copperfield. Sadly, he never saw me and died six months before I was born. My early childhood was extremely happy, as my beautiful mother and kind Peggotty took care of me. But when I was about eight, a shadow passed over my happiness. My mother often went out walking, in her best clothes, with a gentleman called Mr Murdstone. He seemed to be very fond of my mother. But I knew that Peggotty did not like him.

A few months later Peggotty told me that my mother was going to have a short holiday with some friends. Meanwhile Peggotty and I would go to stay with her brother Daniel in Yarmouth,on the east coast, for two weeks. I spent a wonderfully happy two weeks there, playing all day on the beach with Emily, and sleeping in my own little bed on the ship. I am sure I was in love with little Emily in my childish way, and I cried bitterly when we had to say goodbye at the end of the holiday.

But on the way home to Blunderstone, Peggotty looked at me very worriedly. ‘she said suddenly in a trembling voice.‘I must tell you—While we’ve been away, your dear mother—has married Mr Murdstone!He’s your stepfather now!’

I was deeply shocked. I could not understand how my mother could have married that man. And when we arrived home, I went straight to my room and lay sobbing on my bed, which made my poor mother very unhappy too. As she sat beside me, holding my hand, Mr Murdstone suddenly came in.

What’s this, Chara, my love?’ he asked sternly. ‘Remember, you must be firm with the boy!I’ve told you before, you’re too weak with him!’ And when mother left the room, Mr Murdstone whispered angrily to me, ‘David, do you know what I’ll do if you don’t obey me?I’ll beat you like a dog!’ I was still very young, and I was very frightened of him. If he had said one kind word to me, perhaps I would have liked and trusted him, and my life would have been different. Instead, I hated him for the influence he had over my dear mother, who wanted to be kind to me, but also wanted to please her new husband.

1.According to the passage, what ended David’s happy childhood?

A. His father’s death.

B. Peggotty’s ignorance of him.

C. His mother’s acquaintance with Mr.Murdstone.

D. Mr.Murdstone’s love to his mother.

2.What’s the author’s tone in writing the underlined sentences in P2?

A. Serious.    B. Humorous.

C. Sad.    D. Regretful.

3.How did David think about Mr.Murdstone?

A. Strict and firm.    B. Sensible and caring.

C. Gentle and helpful.    D. Mean and unkind.

4.According to the passage, what’s most likely to be mentioned in the follwing part?

A. Peggotty’s help to David.    B. Mr.Murdstone’s cruelty to David.

C. David’s fights against Mr.Murdstone.    D. David’s love to mother.

 

From self-driving cars to deep sea explorers, more and more of humans’ tasks are being taken over by robots. But technology doesn’t stop there. In mid-August, reported the BBC, scientists from Cambridge University developed a robotic system that meant a robot could “build other robots, each one better than the previous(以前的) generation”.

The BBC noted that “those concerned about machines taking over the world shouldn’t worry”.

However, over 1,000 scientists and numerous artificial intelligence (AI, 人工智能) researchers-including UK astrophysicist Stephen Hawking and Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak of the US-brought the danger of fully autonomous weapons(自主武器), known as “killer robots”, to our attention earlier this summer.

“If any major military(军事的) power pushes ahead with AI weapon development, a global arms race is inevitable(不可避免的),” warned an open letter released at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Unlike drones(无人机), which need a human hand, this kind of robot would have some decision-making abilities and the ability to act by itself. While what the BBC called these “solders that never sleep” could help reduce battlefield deaths, they might also make countries more likely to go into battle, which would lead to more deaths overall, noted the scientists. The risks, they said, could be far greater than those posed by nuclear weapons.

Scientists called for a “ban on offensive(攻击性的) autonomous weapons beyond meaningful human control”, reported The Huffington Post.

In fact, in an interview with the BBC in 2014, Hawking warned that the “development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race”.

And according to the BBC, many leading thinkers have been thinking about the AI-powered killing machine of the not-too-distant future. “Killer robots could be here within years, not decades,” as Stuart Russell, professor of computer science at UC Berkeley, US, put it.

Authorities are gradually waking up to the risk of robot wars. Last May, for the first time, the United Nations brought governments together to begin talks on so-called killer robots in a hope of stopping such weapons while there is still time.

Meanwhile, there are scientists who are less worried. They believe all technologies have potential(潜力) for being used for good and evil ends, and argue that the ban called for by the open letter could close the door to developing AI technology that could save lives. “Technology can clearly do better than human beings in many cases,” Ronald Arkin, dean at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, US, told The Christian Science Monitor. “If we are willing to turn over some of our decision making to these machines, we may actually get better outcomes.”

1.What does Steve Wozniak think the future robot technology might produce?

A. Artificial Intelligence.    B. Autonomous weapons.

C. Soldiers that never sleep.    D. Killing machines.

2.The underlined word “spell” in Paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to “______”.

A. cause    B. prevent

C. reach    D. change

3.What does Stuart Russell mean by saying “killer robots could be here within years, not decades.”?

A. Killer robots will visit UC Berkeley, US sooner than expected.

B. Killer robots will be produced and used sooner than expected.

C. Killer robots will speed up the development of AI in the near future.

D. Killer robots will kill these scientists in the near future.

4.What is the main idea of the text?

A. More and more of humans’ tasks are being taken over by robots.

B. Robots have decision-making abilities and the ability to act by itself.

C. Scientists called for a ban on the development of robot technology.

D. All technologies have potential for being used for good and evil ends.

 

Restaurants in Miami Beach

Steve’s Pizza

So many pizza chains compete for the attention of tourists in South Beach, but ask a Miami Beach local where to get the best pizza and they’ll tell you about Steve’s. This is New York style pizza, handmade with care and good ingredients(成分). New branches of Steve’s Pizza are opening elsewhere in Miami, all in non-tourist areas.

Opening hours: 11 a.m.-10a.m.

Cattleman’s Steakhouse

This place is 20 miles east of the city, but local folks would probably drive 200 miles to eat here. The food is good, and the scenery is even better. Come early and wander around the grounds of Indian Cliffs Ranch, where you’ll see everything from rabbits to buffalo (水牛), then catch the sunset either before or after your meal.

Opening hours: 5p.m.-10p.m.

Absolute Baking & Café

The screen door is always swinging open at this town hot spot with giant breakfasts. Try the green chili on eggs – it’s made from scratch, as are the organic(有机的) breads. Lunch includes salads, big sandwiches and local grass-fed beef burgers. Don’t miss a square of soft, fresh carrot cake.

Opening hours: 7a.m.-2p.m.

Walt’s Wharf

Everybody’s favorite for fresh fish (some drive in from LA). Walt’s packs them in on weekends. You can’t make reservations for dinner (though they’re accepted for lunch), but it’s worth the wait for the tree fire–grilled seafood and steaks in the many-windowed ground floor or upstairs in captain’s chairs.

Opening hours: 11a.m.-10:30p.m.

1.The new branches of Steve’s Pizza are mainly intended for ______.

A. New Yorkers    B. tourists

C. the locals    D. foreigners

2.Cattleman’s Steakhouse offers the wonderful ______ as well as good food.

A. wine    B. view

C. discount    D. service

 

Copyright @ 2014 满分5 满分网 ManFen5.COM. All Rights Reserved.